Cromwell IV Tank
Condition: New in Box
Tank, Cruiser, Mk VIII, Cromwell (A27M),[nb 1] and the related Centaur (A27L) tank, were one of the most successful series of cruiser tanks fielded by Britain in the Second World War. The Cromwell tank, named after the English Civil War leader Oliver Cromwell, was the first tank put into service by the British to combine a dual-purpose gun, high speed from the powerful and reliable Meteor engine, and reasonable armour, all in one balanced package. Its design formed the basis of the Comet tank.
The Cromwell and Centaur differed in the engine used. While the Centaur had the Liberty engine of the predecessor cruiser tank, the Crusader (and the interim A24 Cavalier), the Cromwell had the significantly more powerful Meteor. Apart from the engine and associated transmission differences, the two tanks were effectively the same and many Centaurs built were given the Meteor to make them Cromwells.
The Cromwell first saw action in the Battle of Normandy in June 1944. The tank equipped the armoured reconnaissance regiments, of the Royal Armoured Corps, within the 7th, 11th, and Guards Armoured Divisions. While the armoured regiments of the latter two divisions were equipped with M4 Shermans, the armoured regiments of the 7th Armoured Division were fully equipped with Cromwell tanks. The Centaurs were not generally used for combat except for those fitted with a 95mm Howitzer which were used in support of the Royal Marines during the invasion of Normandy.The Cromwell and the related Centaur were the product of further development of British cruiser tanks, and they were designed as the replacement for the Crusader tank, which although not yet in service would become obsolete in time. In late 1940, the General Staff set out the specifications for the new tank, and designs were submitted in early 1941. The tank would be fitted with the QF 6 pounder gun with the expectation that it would enter service in 1942.
Due to the typical rushed production and lack of components, the A24 Cavalier, then known as "Cromwell I", built by Nuffield had far too many problems to see active combat service. One of the key problems was its Nuffield-built Liberty engine, which lacked adequate power. It had been ordered as it was based on tried equipment and therefore should have entered service with minimal delay.
Leyland and Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon (BRC&W) had been involved in the development and had offered similar designs to Nuffield. A second specification for a better tank was the General Staff A27. The tank would be fitted with the QF 6 pounder gun with the expectation that it would enter service in 1942. Once it became clear there would be delays, a programme was set in place to fit the 6 pounder to the Crusader to get some 6 pounder tanks in service.The General staff issued new specifications to cover the tanks. The BRC&W design using the Meteor was A27M (or "Cromwell III") and Leyland's version of it to take the Liberty was A27L ("Cromwell II"). Nuffields A24 with the Liberty was the Cromwell II. The naming was reworked in November 1942 with the A27L as Centaur, A27M as Cromwell and A24 as Cavalier.
Production began in November 1942. It would take considerable time for Rover to make ready production lines for the Meteor, and it was not until a few months later, in January 1943, that sufficient Meteor engines were available and the A27M Cromwell began production. The Centaur production design allowed for the later conversion to the Meteor engine and many Centaurs would be converted to Cromwells before use.
The frame was of riveted construction, though welding was used later. The armour plate was then bolted to the frame; large bosses on the outside of the plate were used on the turret. Several British firms besides Leyland contributed to production of the Cromwell and Centaur, including LMS Railway, Morris Motors, Metro-Cammell, Birmingham Railway Carriage and Wagon Company and English Electric.[Some variants were produced with 14-inch-wide (360 mm) tracks; later, 15.5-inch tracks were used.
The suspension was of the Christie type, with long helical springs (in tension) angled back to keep the hull sides low. Of the five road wheels each side, four had shock absorbers. The tracks were driven by sprocketed wheels at the rear and tension adjusted at the front idler, this being standard British practice. As with previous Christie-suspension cruiser tanks, there were no track return rollers, the track being supported instead on the tops of the road wheels. The side of the hull was made up of two spaced plates, the suspension units between them, and the outer plate having cutouts for the movement of the road-wheel axles. The gearbox had five forward and one reverse gears. The first gear was for "confined spaces, on steep inclines or...sharp turns".
The Meteor engine delivered 540 hp at 2,250 rpm. This was the maximum rpm, which was limited by governors built into the magnetos. Fuel consumption on "pool" petrol (67 octane) was between 0.5 and 1.5 miles per gallon depending on terrain.
The driver sat on the right in the front of the hull, separated from the hull gunner by a bulkhead. The driver had two periscopes and a visor in the hull front. The visor could be opened fully or a small "gate" in it opened; in the latter case a thick glass block protected the driver. A bulkhead with access holes separated the driver and hull gunner from the fighting compartment. A further bulkhead separated the fighting compartment from the engine and transmission bay. The engine compartment drew cooling air in through the top of each side and the roof and exhausted it to the rear. To allow fording through up to 4 ft (1.2 m) deep water a flap could be moved over to cover the lowermost air outlet.
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- Stock: Out Of Stock
- Model: AIR02338
- Weight: 0.38lb
- DATE ADDED: 13/09/2014