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A firefighter, also known as a fireman, is a rescuer extensively trained infirefighting, primarily to extinguish hazardous fires that threaten property and civilian or natural populations and to rescue people from dangerous situations, like collapsed or burning buildings.
The complexity of modern industrialized life with a greater prominence of hazards has created an increase in the skills needed in firefighting technology and a broadening of the firefighter-rescuer's remit. They sometimes provideemergency medical services, for example. The fire service, or fire and rescue service, also known in some countries as the fire brigade or fire department, is one of the main emergency services. Firefighting and firefighters have become ubiquitous around the world, from wildland areas to urban areas, and aboard ships. According to Merriam-Webster's Dictionary, the English word "firefighter" has been used since 1903.In recent decades it has become the preferred term, replacing the older "fireman", since many women serve as firefighters, and also because the term "fireman" can have other meanings, including someone who sets, stokes, or tends fires - especially in designated fireplaces – the opposite of the firefighting role.n many countries, firefighters may be employed as full-time workers and paid a salary. Additionally, there are volunteer firefighters (who are theoretically unpaid) and retained firefighters (or auxiliary firefighters, who are paid for the specific time they are on duty, i.e. permanent part-time career firefighters) on call as required.In such countries as the United Kingdom, the use of additional retained firefighters is standard. In Portugal, for example, the use of volunteer firefighters is standard, along with career firefighters. In Australia there are volunteer brigades which are mostly unpaid rural services, although traditionally they are paid by their employers if called out during usual working hours.The goals of firefighting are (in order of priority): As such, the skills required for safe operations are regularly practiced during training evaluations throughout a firefighter's career. In the United States, the preeminent fire training and standards organization is the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Often initial firefighting skills are taught during a local, regional, or state approved fire academy. Depending on the requirements of a department, additional skills and certifications such as technical rescue and Para-medicine may also be taught at this time. The acronym for the priorities of the firefighters is RECEO.
Firefighters work closely with other emergency response agencies, most particularly local and state police departments. As every fire scene is technically a crime sceneuntil deemed otherwise by a qualified investigator, there is often overlap between the responsibilities of responding firefighters and police officers such as evidence and scene protection, initial observations of first respondents, and chain of evidence issues.Fire fighting has some basic skills: prevention, self-preservation, rescue, preservation of property, basic first aid, and fire control. Firefighting is further broken down into skills which include size-up, extinguishing, ventilation, salvage and overhaul. Wildland firefighting includes size up, containment, extinguishment, and mop up. Search and Rescue, which has already been mentioned, is performed early in any fire scenario and many times is in unison with extinguishing and ventilation.Fire suppression systems have a proven record for controlling and extinguishing unwanted fires. Many fire officials recommend that every building, including residences, have fire sprinklersystems. Correctly working sprinklers in a residence greatly reduce the risk of death from a fire. With the small rooms typical of a residence, one or two sprinklers can cover most rooms.
In addition, a major duty of fire services is the regular inspection of buildings to ensure they are up to the current building fire codes, which are enforced so that a building can sufficiently resist fire spread, potential hazards are located, and to ensure that occupants can be safely evacuated, commensurate with the risks involved.
Other methods of fire prevention are by directing efforts to reduce known hazardous conditions or by preventing dangerous acts before tragedy strikes. This is normally accomplished in many innovative ways such as conducting presentations, distributing safety brochures, providing news articles, writing public safety announcements (PSA) or establishing meaningful displays in well-visited areas. Ensuring that each household has working smoke alarms, is educated in the proper techniques of fire safety, has an evacuation route and rendezvous point is of top priority in public education for most fire prevention teams in almost all fire department localities.
A U.S. Navy firefighter douses a fire during a training drill in July 2008. He is equipped with afire hose with fog nozzle, breathing apparatus,helmet and full structural firefighting kit.
|Rescue, fire protection, civil service,public service, public safety|
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