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Manufacturer: ICM Models (Ukraine)
Paint: Unpainted, Unassembled, Kit do not contain paints and glue.
Condition: New in Box
The worst thing for the individual soldier during this period was the fact that the enemy, the Russians often dug in already at the beginning of the war, could not be seen. The attacking forces now were fixed in front of the enemy's trenches, not able to move forward or retreat. The casualties were rising. During the winter of 1914/1915 the situation changed. Later than on the western front, both sides started to dig in systematically, put obstacles in front of the trenches and deployed artillery behind the main battle line. Normally only one trench-line was built, being of course the main objective of all offensive attempts. Where the enemy was able to break through, the defender was forced to withdraw whole sectors to prevent the collapse of the whole frontline. To avoid this problem, the Austro-Hungarian High army command (Armeeoberkommando - AOK) started, mainly influenced by experiences on the German western front, to reorganize the way in which AH forces were deployed. About 100 metres behind the first line another was built and at the same distance behind the second a third line was established. All three lines were also connected by communication and supply lines and named the so-called "first position" (1. Stellung). At a distance of two or three kilometres another position (2. Stellung), also consisting of three lines, was made. Behind the second position the main artillery was deployed. A third position was planned (mostly not fully constructed) at a distance of four to six kilometers. This kind of "linear" trench system of course changed battlefield tactics. Attacks could only be successful, when the supporting artillery was able to destroy the obstacles and trenches of the first position to enable the infantry to get into the enemy position. To effect a decisive breakthrough it was necessary to take also the second position, especially the artillery area behind. If not, the defender was able to barrage the enemy by artillery fire preventing him bringing support and reserves to the attacking units. They were suffering heavy casualties and mostly too weak to hold their taken objectives. Counter attacks by the defender normally threw the enemy back to the initial positions. If not, the defender simply changed the former second position to his new first one; the former third became the new second one.
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