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BM-13 Soviet rocket launch system on ZiL-151 truck plastic/photo-etched/resin
1/87 HO scale plastic model kit
Scale: 1/87 HO
Material: Plastic,photo-etched parts
Condition: New in Box
Katyusha multiple rocket launchers (Russian: ÐšÐ°Ñ‚ÑŽÌÑˆÐ°, IPA: [kÉËˆtÊ²Ê‰Ê‚É™] ( )) are a type of rocket artillery first built and fielded by theSoviet Union in World War II. Multiple rocket launchers such as these deliver a devastating amount of explosives to a target area more quickly than conventional artillery, but with lower accuracy and requiring a longer time to reload. They are fragile compared to artillery guns, but are inexpensive and easy to produce. Katyushas of World War II, the first self-propelled artillery mass-produced by the Soviet Union, were usually mounted on trucks. This mobility gave the Katyusha (and otherself-propelled artillery) another advantage: being able to deliver a large blow all at once, and then move before being located and attacked withcounter-battery fire.
Katyusha weapons of World War II included the BM-13 launcher, light BM-8, and heavy BM-31. Today, the nickname is also applied to newer truck-mounted Soviet (and not only Soviet) multiple rocket launchers—notably the common BM-21—and derivatives.German troops coined the sobriquet Stalin's organ (German: Stalinorgel), after Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, prompted by the visual resemblance of the launch array to a church organ and the sound of the weapon's rocket motors. Weapons of this type are known by the same name in Denmark (Danish: Stalinorgel), Finland (Finnish: Stalinin urut), France (French:Orgues de Staline), Norway (Norwegian: Stalinorgel), the Netherlands (Dutch: Stalinorgel), Hungary (Hungarian:Sztálinorgona), and in Sweden (Stalins orgel).Katyusha rocket launchers were mounted on many platforms during World War II, including on trucks, artillery tractors, tanks, and armoured trains, as well as on naval and riverine vessels as assault support weapons, Soviet engineers also mounted single Katyusha rockets on lengths of railway track to serve in urban combat.
The design was relatively simple, consisting of racks of parallel rails on whichrockets were mounted, with a folding frame to raise the rails to launch position. Each truck had between 14 and 48 launchers. The M-13 rocket of the BM-13 system was 180 cm (5 ft 11 in) long, 13.2 cm (5.2 in) in diameter and weighed 42 kg (93 lb).
The weapon is less accurate than conventional artillery guns, but is extremely effective in saturation bombardment, and was particularly feared by German soldiers. A battery of four BM-13 launchers could fire a salvo in 7–10 seconds that delivered 4.35 tons of high explosives over a 400,000-square-metre (4,300,000 sq ft) impact zone,making its power roughly equivalent to that of 72 guns. With an efficient crew, the launchers could redeploy to a new location immediately after firing, denying the enemy the opportunity for counterbattery fire. Katyusha batteries were often massed in very large numbers to create a shock effect on enemy forces. The weapon's disadvantage was the long time it took to reload a launcher, in contrast to conventional guns which could sustain a continuous low rate of fire.
BM-13 Katyusha multiple rocket launcher, based on a ZIS-6truck, Museum of the Great Patriotic War, Kiev, Ukraine (close-up).
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|In service||1939–late 1960s|
|Used by||Soviet Union, Russian Federation, and others|
|Wars||World War II
Yom Kippur War
2006 Lebanon War
2011 Libyan civil war
|Variants||BM-13, BM-8, BM-31, BM-14,BM-21, BM-24, BM-25, BM-27,BM-30|
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